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 Abbreviations for car terms and their explanations
Aerodynamic drag coefficient - Aerodynamic properties are usually measured by the aerodynamic coefficient (or "Cd" coefficient). This coefficient is calculated by estimating the resistance force according to the force that would require the car to come to a complete stop. The higher the coefficient of resistance, the greater the force to be overcome by the engine driving the car.
Bi-Xenon - Low beam and high beam xenon gas headlights.
Carbon - Durable and extremely light material suitable for the production of body parts and brakes. Applied in the construction of sports cars, Formula 1 cars, etc.
Compact - Compact class.
Coupe - Body with two doors with rear sloping part.
Cabriolet; convertible - Convertible - Body with hinged top.
Crossover - A hybrid of SUV and passenger car.
EST (Estate; station wagon; shooting brake) - A car with a universal body.
Facelift (plastic surgery, cosmetic repair) - This term is used to describe a manufacturer's externally refurbished cars.
FBK (Fastback)
FHC (Fixed-head coupe)
HBK (Hatchback) - Hatchback - Body with sloping end and rear 3 or 5 doors. E.g. VW Golf.
LDV (Light delivery vehicle)
LED technology - LED technology - These are light emitting diodes. They are increasingly used not only in the household but also in the automotive industry. Current new cars have built-in lights in the rear, turn signals. Advantages: durability, faster switching on and lower (up to 50%) energy consumption than conventional light bulbs.
LIM - (Limousine; limo)
Minivan - Monovolume body, up to 8 seats.
MPV (Multi-purpose vehicle)
Air Resistance Coefficient (Cx) - The body's fluidity coefficient, which describes how strongly the air resists the car. The lower it is, the lower the air resistance.
ORV (Off-road vehicle)
SAL (Sedan) - Sedan - Body with two rows of seats and trunk separated from the cabin.
Spoiler - A wing that reduces air vortices or increases pressure.
SUV - Sport-utility vehicle
RDSR - Roadster
Targa - The body of a sports car, the middle part of the roof (between the doors) can be removed.
TOUR - Tourer
Touring - A car with a universal body.
TT (Targa top) - Sports car body, the middle part of the roof (between the doors) can be removed.
Estate - A car body with space at the rear for transporting goods.
VAN (Van; panel)
Variant - Car with universal body (VW).
Xenon headlights are bright, non-dazzling blue light with bulbs filled with xenon gas that requires high voltage.
16V - Engine with 4 cylinders and 16 valves i.e. with two intake and two exhaust valves per cylinder.
HP - Horsepower, unit of engine power (1.36 hp = 1 kW).
BHP (Brake horse power) - The actual, or in other words, useful horsepower of an engine, usually determined by the force in the friction-based brakes or by a dynamometer connected to the drive shaft. The horsepower (bhp) is less than the specified horsepower (ihp or HP in Lithuanian) due to various power losses that occur when the engine is running.
Boxermotor - An engine with cylinders placed horizontally against each other (Porsche and Subaru).
CC - Cubic centimeter, unit of engine displacement.
CDI (Common-Rail Diesel Injection) - Direct fuel injection in a diesel engine where all cylinders are fueled through a common high-pressure distribution system (Mercedes).
Chip-Tuning - Increases power by replacing the electronic engine control program memory module or by reprogramming the car's engine electronics.
Cylinder - A roller sleeve in which the piston slides.
CO content - The carbon monoxide content of the exhaust gases.
Displacement - Equal to the volume of all cylinders put together.
DDi (Direct diesel injection)
DOHC (Double overhead camshaft) - Engines that have two separating shafts for opening and closing the valves per "head". Therefore, a single-row motor has two such shafts, and a V-shaped motor even has four.
DOHC VTEC - Variable profile intake and exhaust valves. High power at high engine speeds.
EFi (Electronic fuel injection)
FI (Fuel injection)
FSI (Fuel Stratified Injection) - An engine equipped with solenoid valve control. This makes it possible to inject fuel at exactly the right time. FSI technology helps reduce petrol consumption by 15% and emissions (Volkswagen).
GDi (Gasoline direct injection)
Ho PGMFi (Honda programmable fuel injection)
HP - Horsepower, unit of engine power (1.36 hp = 1 kW).
Intercooler - An air cooler located between the compressor and the cylinders.
Catalyst - A chemical-free decontaminator of harmful combustion gases.
NOS (Nitrous Oxide System) - The gas system is fed into the cylinders and increases the engine power by up to 50%.
OHV (Overhead valves)
ROT (Rotary)
RPM - A unit of measurement for engine speed: crankshaft revolutions per minute.
SFI (Sequential fuel injection)
SL (Sleeve valves)
SMPFi (Sequential multi-point fuel injection)
SOHC (Single overhead camshaft) - A type of engine where the valves are opened and closed by a single crankshaft.
SOHC VTEC - Variable profile intake valves.
SOHC VTEC-E - At low engine speeds, only one of the intake valves in the cylinder is used. At high speeds, the second one also starts. This ensures significant savings.
3 STAGE VTEC - High power and high engine economy. This system is a combination of SOHC VTEC and SOHC VTEC - E mechanisms.
TD - turbo diesel.
Turbo - A turbocharged engine that, by blowing air into the combustion chamber at a higher pressure, causes the air / fuel mixture to burn better and faster, thereby increasing engine power.
Twin Spark - Each engine cylinder has two spark plugs. This design ensures better fuel combustion, economy and lower emissions (Alfa Romeo).
V6, V8, V12 - Engines with cylinder rows arranged at an angle, like the letter V. Numbers refer to the number of cylinders.
VTEC (Variable Valve Timing and Lift Electronic Control) - This is an electronic and mechanical valve control system used in Honda cars. At different engine speeds, the VTEC mechanism allows the use of different camshaft areas.
VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing - with intelligence) - Variable Valve Timing in Toyota cars. Toyota variable valve timing with state-of-the-art intelligent technology is based on computer technology that regulates air intake according to driving conditions and engine load. By adjusting the clock time, i. between the opening of the intake valve and the closing of the exhaust valve, a much better engine torque is guaranteed over the entire engine speed range. VVT-i - very important advantages in 3 areas - the car can be driven in a sporty style, fuel consumption is significantly reduced, fuel is completely burned at higher temperatures, resulting in less emissions.
ABS (Antilock Brake System) - Prevents the wheels from locking during sudden braking, the car remains in control even when braking.
ARB (Anti-roll bar)
Active Suspension - Its stiffness and damping force are adjusted automatically according to the unevenness of the road. It is controlled by an electronic system.
Drum brakes - A system in which the friction linings rub against the inner surface of the brake drum (the drum rotates with the wheel).
CS (Coil springs)
DW (Double wishbones) - Double wishbones.
Four wheel steering (4ws) - All four steered wheels.
I (Independent).
LA (Live axle)
LowTrailLi (Lower trailing link)
LW (Lower wishbone)
MS (Mc Pherson strut) - MacPherson strut suspension - A suspension where the wheel is attached to the top only through one rigid joint (shock absorber).
MultiLi - Multi-link.
Tire size - Marking of tire dimensions. E.g. the designation P 195/70 VR15 means:
* P - passenger car tire
* 195 - tire width in millimeters
* 70 - tire height as a percentage of the tire width
* V - max permissible driving speed
* R - radial tire.
* 15 - rim diameter in inches
R17 (R14; R15) is the radius of the tires or rims, expressed in inches (1 inch ~ 2.5 cm).
STA (Semi-trailing arm)
STLi (Semi-trailing link)
Caliper means a disc brake device which presses the brake pads against the brake disc.
SwAx (Swinging axle)
TA (Trailing arm)
TB (Torsion bar) - Torsion bar.
TrailLi (Trailing link)
TzLi (Trapezoidal link)
U&LW (Upper & lower wishbones)
U & LRA (Upper & lower radius arms)
UW (Upper wishbone)
W (Wishbone)
4WD (Four wheel drive) - All wheel drive.
A (Automatic) - Automatic transmission - Transmission system with automatic transmission.
ATS (Automatic Transmission Fluid) - Automatic transmission lubricants.
AWD (All Wheel Drive) - All wheel drive.
CVT (Continuously variable transmission) - Continuously variable transmission. Automatic gearbox without alleged gear ratios.
Differential - This is a mechanism that transmits the power generated by the engine to the drive wheels. The differential allows the wheels to rotate at different speeds. This makes it easier to control the car when turning. All-wheel drive vehicles have either two (front and rear) or three (front, center and rear) differentials.
FWD (front wheel drive) - Gear with front wheel drive.
LSD (Limited Slip Differential) - Limited Slip Differential (LSD) improves driving characteristics and stability when cornering and starting on slippery road surfaces.
M - Manual
M-CVT (Multitronic continuous variable transmission with manual function) - Audi's automatic continuously variable transmission. The Audi track differs from conventional CVT transmissions in one essential respect: the variator is fitted with a plate circuit. This technical solution has eliminated the negative features of "automatic": "rubber belt", "sliding clutch", low acceleration effects.The multitronic transmission withstands up to 310 Nm of torque.Cars with this system are more economical and dynamic. gearshift function, with six fixed gear positions set.
Manual gearbox - Manual gearbox.
Quattro - Chassis with all four drive wheels (Audi).
RWD (rear wheel drive) - Drive with rear wheel drive.
S - sequential
Syncro - All-wheel drive (VW) chassis.
SA - semi-automatic
SM - sequential manual
Transmission - Engine speed and torque transmission system for wheels.
ABC (Active Body Control) - The hydraulic chassis system regulates the chassis's adaptation to the road to the nearest millisecond, reducing body oscillations, ups and downs when cornering, braking and moving (Mercedes).
ACC (Adaptive Cruise Control) - It keeps the desired constant car cruise constant. In the event of an obstacle in front, the priority is not to maintain the set speed, but to maintain a safe distance to the vehicle in front. If there is no obstacle in front, the system returns to maintaining the set speed.
AFL (Adaptive forward lighting) - lights that turn in the direction of the turn.
AFIL - a lane departure warning system.
ASC (Anti Slide Control) - Anti-slip control system that prevents the drive wheels from turning and deviating from the road (BMW).
ASR - wheel spin / skid regulator, see. ASC.
Autopilot - An electronic device that maintains a constant speed.
BAS - Brake Assist, which recognizes the emergency braking situation and creates the maximum pressure in the brake system. As a result, the stopping distance is significantly shortened.
Brake Assistant - This system assists the driver in sudden braking by increasing the braking force (regardless of how hard the brake pedal is depressed) until maximum braking force is reached. This allows you to significantly reduce the stopping distance (Mercedes, Audi).
CBC (Cornering brake control) is a cornering brake control system that distributes brake force so that the car maintains the direction of travel when turning.
Cruise control - An electronic system that maintains a constant set car speed. The set speed can be increased or decreased at any time by the driver himself.
Multifunction information display - The multifunction information display shows the most important engine and driving data, as well as the sound system functions.
DBC (Dynamic Brake Control) - This system assists the driver in sudden braking by increasing the braking force (regardless of how hard the brake pedal is pressed) until the maximum braking force is reached. This allows the stopping distance (BMW) to be significantly reduced.
Distronic - radar measures and maintains a constant distance to the car in front. When the front vehicle brakes, the system also stops the vehicle behind and with the Distronic system.
Distronic Plus - the system additionally brakes the vehicle if necessary to bring it to a complete stop.
Driver monitoring system is a system that monitors the driver's face to warn of critical situations (eg drivers falling asleep).
DRC (Dynamic ride control) - dynamic driving control. It is a mechanical damping system that reduces the car's cornering angle.
DSC (Dynamic stability control) - dynamic stability control, see ESP.
EBD (Electronic brake-force distribution) - a system responsible for the electronic distribution of braking force, which ensures control of the car during sudden braking.
EBS (Emergency brake signal) is a system analogous to Adaptive brake lights, only otherwise known.
EBV - electronic brake force distribution. EBV, unlike EBD, distributes braking force only between the axles.
Econometer - A device that indicates how much the engine is loaded, i.e. fuel consumption.
Electronic package - Interior equipment with power windows, mirrors, sunroof, seats, etc.
ESA (Emergency steering assist) is a steering assistant that directly takes over the steering functions in the event of an accident and facilitates vehicle control.
ESP (Electronic Stability Program) - Used in many new cars. This program makes it easier to control the car in emergencies with the help of electronic anti-lock, brake force distribution, differential lock and traction control electronic systems. The latest generation of ESP programs has a function that drains the brake discs when water gets on them.
ETK (Electronic Traction Control System) - This system automatically reduces engine power if this system detects drive wheel slip during acceleration. This system also adjusts the brake system pressure to restore traction, make it easier to accelerate and reduce acceleration.
GPS (Global Positioning System) - The GPS navigation system used in cars receives signals from the satellite about the position of the vehicle in terms of longitude, latitude, and altitude. To increase accuracy, the navigation system takes into account the speed and direction of movement when determining the position of the vehicle. The GPS system uses maps - the driver tells the computer the point to reach and the system calculates the shortest distance to the destination.
HDC (Hill descent control) - an assistance system to overcome mountainous areas. On steep slopes, it automatically limits the speed of the car.
Climate control - System, automatic

Airbag - Airbag. An instantly inflating airbag that protects a person’s upper body from injury during an accident.
Active head restraints - During a head-on impact, the active head restraints move forward to protect the head and neck from injury.
Bagde engineering - Production of vehicles of the same type but different brands. For example: VW Sharan and Ford Galaxy.
Euro-NCAP - European New Car Assessment Program. Euro-NCAP (European New Car Assessment Program) is an organization that performs high-level independent safety tests on the most popular cars sold in Europe and provides consumers with accurate and impartial information. Under current law, cars must pass certain safety tests as a minimum technical standard.
European emissions regulations - In Europe, all new car models must be tested in a variety of technical tests to make them as clean and environmentally friendly as possible. These tests consist of the usual standard exhaust emission tests, the requirements of which have become more stringent since the early 1980s. Emission standards such as Euro I (since 1992), Euro II (since 1996), Euro III (since 2000) and Euro IV (since 2005), etc. have been set.
Km / h - Travel speed in kilometers per hour.
Oversteer - The tendency of the front of the car to turn inwards (make a sharper turn than necessary) when the end is "carried" outwards.
RSC - (Run-flat system component) - a system that allows a car to travel several tens of kilometers without puncturing the tire.
Sidebag - Side airbags installed in a door or seat that protect the pelvic area through the accident.
SIPS (Side impact protection system) - side impact protection in the door.
SRS (Supplementary restraint system) is another name for an airbag, see "Airbag".
Understeer - The tendency of the front of the car to turn to the outside of the turn (make a wider turn than necessary).
WHIPS (Whiplash injury protection system) - protection system against neck injuries, see "Active head restraints".
Windowbag - curtain type airbags for side windows. Protects head and chest.